HOODWINKED IN THE HOTHOUSE
Resist False Solutions to Climate Change
THIRD EDITION 2021
This compendium of corporate false promises pulls back the bright green curtain, exposing the dark side of risky high-tech fantasies that continue to hoodwink elected officials and the public while propping up the biggest global polluters.
The unrealistic quick-fixes detailed in this book will waste billions on energy industry snake-oil schemes and corporate handouts like “market-based mechanisms,” all while distracting us from the real solutions that serve our most urgent needs.
Easy to read and stunningly illustrated, the newly updated and expanded “Hoodwinked” is an educational toolbox for activists, organizers, impacted communities and elected officials.
The world is in an alarming climate justice moment of no-turning-back – arm yourself with knowledge to Resist False Solutions to Climate Change!
Energy Justice Network
Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives
Global Justice Ecology Project
Indigenous Climate Action
Indigenous Environmental Network
Just Transition Alliance
La Via Campesina
Mt. Diablo Rising Tide
Mutual Aid Disaster Relief
North American Megadam Resistance Alliance
Nuclear Information and Resource Service
Rising Tide North America
Shaping Change Collaborative
1 Climate justice movements around the world support the Indigenous Peoples’ worldview of Earth as a common Mother to all living, sentient beings. This support was ratified by global movements and allied NGOs in the signing the Cochabamba
Protocol: Peoples’ Agreement on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, at the 2010 World Peoples’ Conference on Climate Change, Bolivia: https://madre.org/press-publications/statement/cochabamba-protocol-peoples-agreementclimate-change-and-rights-mother
2 McDonnell, T. (2020, November 17). Jeff Bezos is now the biggest climate activism donor—and that’s a problem. Quartz. https://qz.com/1934403/bezos-earth-fund-makes-him-the-biggest-climate-activist-backer/
3 Chowdhury, O.R. (2012, August 8). “Green” Economy, greed economy. Counter Currents.
1 Gilbertson, T. (2017). Carbon pricing: A critical perspective for community resistance. Indigenous Environmental Network and Climate Justice Alliance. https://co2colonialism.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Carbon-Pricing-A-CriticalPerspective-for-Community-Resistance-Online-Version.pdf
2 Ajani, J. I., Keith, H., Blakers, M., Mackey, B. G., & King, H. P. (2013). Comprehensive carbon stock and flow accounting: a national framework to support climate change mitigation policy. Ecological Economics, 89, 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
3 Friends of the Earth International. (2021). Chasing carbon unicorns. https://foei.org/resources/publications/chasingcarbon-unicorns-carbon-markets-net-zero-report
4 McAfee, K. (2016). Green economy and carbon markets for conservation and development: a critical view. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 16(3), 333-353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-015-9295-4
5 Carbon Trade Watch and Indigenous Environmental Network (2010). No REDD, a reader. https://wrm.org.uy/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/REDDreaderEN.pdf
6 Irfan, U. (2018, October 18). Exxon is lobbying for a carbon tax. There is, obviously, a catch. Vox. https://vox.com/2018/10/18/17983866/climate-change-exxon-carbon-tax-lawsuit
7 Gilbertson, T. (2021). Financialization of nature and climate change policy: Implications for mining-impacted AfroColombian communities. Community Development Journal, 56(1), 21-38. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsaa052
8 Personal observation by one of the authors at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP)25, Madrid, Spain.
1 IPCC. (2014). Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
2 ETC Group. (2017). Who Will Feed Us?: The Peasant Food Web versus the Industrial Food Chain. https://etcgroup.org/sites/www.etcgroup.org/files/files/etc-whowillfeedus-english-webshare.pdf
3 GRAIN. (2016). How the industrial food system contributes to the climate crisis. In The great climate robbery (pp. 2–7). New Internationalist. https://grain.org/en/article/5354-the-great-climate-robbery.
4 CCFD-Terre Solidaire and Confédération Paysanne. (2016). Our land is worth more than carbon. https://eurovia.org/cop-22-our-land-is-worth-more-than-carbon/
5 Parnell, J. (2020, August 3). Shell’s carbon offset business makes its first acquisition. Gtm. https://greentechmedia.com/articles/read/shell-makes-first-acquisition-for-carbon-offset-business-unit
6 FAO. (2020). Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). Accessed 13 Jan 21. http://fao.org/gleam/results/en/
7 ETC Group. (2017). Who Will Feed Us?: The Peasant Food Web versus the Industrial Food Chain. https://www.etcgroup.org/sites/www.etcgroup.org/files/files/etc-whowillfeedus-english-webshare.pdf
1 Booth, M.S. (2014). Trees, trash, and toxics: How biomass energy has become the new coal. Partnership for Policy Integrity. http://pfpi.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/PFPI-Biomass-is-the-New-Coal-April-2-2014.pdf
2 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation is a controversial UN forest offset program. See reddmonitor.org for more information.
1 Stockman, L. (2019). Burning the gas ‘bridge fuel’ myth: Why gas is not clean, cheap, or necessary. Oil Change International.
2 Schade, G.W. (2020, July 29). Routine gas flaring is wasteful, polluting and unmeasured. The Conversation. https://
3 Swanson, C., & Levin, A. (2020). Sailing to nowhere: Liquefied natural gas is not an effective climate strategy. Natural
Resources Defense Council. https://nrdc.org/sites/default/files/sailing-nowhere-liquefied-natural-gas-report.pdf
4 Kelly, S. (2018, October 28). Why plans to turn America’s rust belt into a new plastics belt are bad news for the
climate. Desmog. https://desmogblog.com/2018/10/28/petrochemical-industry-america-rust-belt-plastics-fracking-climate
5 Dalberg Advisors, de Wit, W., & Bigaud, N. (2019). No plastic in nature: Assessing plastic ingestion from
nature to people. WWF. http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/plastic_ingestion_press_singles.pdf
6 Lebreton, L., Slat, B., Ferrari, F., Sainte-Rose, B., Aitken, J., Marthouse, R., Hajbane, S., Cunsolo, S., Schwarz,
A., Leviver, A., Noble, K., Debeljak, P., Maral, H., Schoeneich-Argent, R., Brambini, R., & Reisser, J. (2018). Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-15. https://
7 World Economic Forum. (2016). The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics. http://www3.
8 Kalamaras, C. M., & Efstathiou, A. M. (2013). Hydrogen production technologies: current state and future developments.
Conference Papers in Science, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/690627
9 IEA (2020). Methane Tracker 2020. International Energy Association. Retrieved February 15, 2021, from https://iea.
1 U.S. Department of Energy. (n.d.). Hydrogen production: Natural gas reforming. http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/
2 Romm, J. J. (2004). The hype about hydrogen: Fact and fiction in the race to save the climate. Island Press.
LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY
1 Global Methane Initiative. (n.d.). Global methane emissions and mitigation opportunities. http://
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2011, March 31). Greenhouse gas emissions – methane emissions.
3 Mutch, R. D., Mahony, J. D., Paquin, P. R., & Cleary, J. (2007). A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 6, 283-295. http://doi.
4 Energy Justice Network. (2018, July) Methane’s global warming potential (number of times worse than
5 West Coast Climate and Materials Management Forum. (n.d.). Gas capture rates: Uncertainty involving
landfill gas emissions. http://westcoastclimateforum.com/content/gas-capture-rates-uncertainty-involving-landfill-gas-emissions
6 Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. (2021, February 25). Table HH-3 to subpart HH of part 98—Landfill
gas collection efficiencies. http://ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=765d2acc0741856732928caf2dd0d49e&mc=true&n=sp40.23.98.hh&r=SUBPART&ty=HTML#ap40.23.98_1348.3
7 Witynski, M. (2019, July 12). Disputed ground: The future of landfill gas-to-energy. Waste Dive. http://wastedive.com/news/disputed-ground-the-future-of-landfill-gas-to-energy/557706/
8 Energy Justice Network. (2020, September) Landfill gas-to-energy: Toxic and bad for the climate… Not
green or renewable. http://energyjustice.net/lfg
9 Lewis-Michl, E.L., Kallenbach, L.R., Geary, N.S., Melius, J.M., Ju, C.L., Orr, M.F., & Forand, F.P. (1998).
Investigation of cancer incidence and residence near 38 landfills with soil gas migration conditions: New York State, 1980-
1989. New York State Department of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Environmental Epidemiology, Bureau
of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology. http://energyjustice.net/files/lfg/nys-cancer.pdf
10 Caponi, F. R., Wheless, E., & Frediani, D. (1998). Dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units. County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County. http://energyjustice.net/files/lfg/LFG-caponi.pdf
11 Kolker, K. (2019, April 4). Lifting yard waste ban may help landfill gas be greener. MLive. http://mlive.com/
12 Public Sector Consultants Inc. (2017, January) Policy brief on “examining increased renewable energy production from landfill gas in Michigan.” http://publicsectorconsultants.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Granger_PolicyBrief-1.pdf
13 Barnes, J. (2015, June 23). About 90% of waste sent to landfill could be recycled or composted. Waste Dive. http://wastedive.com/news/about-90-of-waste-sent-to-landfill-could-be-recycled-or-composted/401156/
14 Stewart, J. R. (2013). Landfill gas-to-energy projects may release more greenhouse gases than flaring. http://energyjustice.net/files/lfg/lfgte-increases-ghgs.pdf
15 Morris, J., Favoino, E., Lombardi, E., & Bailey, K. (2013). What is the best disposal option for the “Leftovers” on the way to Zero Waste? Eco-Cycle. http://ecocycle.org/specialreports/leftovers
WASTE INCINERATION (“WASTE-TO-ENERGY”)
1 Energy Justice Network. (2021, March 20). Incineration and incinerators-in-disguise. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/
2 Energy Justice Network. (2021, February 17). Incinerators are NOT “waste-to-energy” facilities. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/waste-to-energy
3 Energy Justice Network. (2021, March 20). Trash incinerator ash – Nearly 30 tons for every 100 tons burned. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/ash
4 Morris, J. (1996). Recycling versus incineration: An energy conservation analysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 47(1-3), 277-293. http://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3894(95)00116-6; Full copy available at https://web.archive.org/web/20170329083709if_/
5 Energy Justice Network. (2021, March 20). Clean energy and zero waste produce the most jobs. http://energyjustice.net/jobs
6 Energy Justice Network. (2020, December 24). Trash incineration more polluting than coal. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/worsethancoal
7 Zero Waste Montgomery County. (2021, March). Beyond incineration: Best waste management strategies for Montgomery County, Maryland. http://energyjustice.net/md/beyond.pdf
8 Ewall, M. (2020, February). Trash incineration FACT CHECK: Covanta’s “energy-from-waste & health risk” flyer. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/healthstudies.pdf
9 Ewall, M. (2012). Dioxins and furans: The most toxic chemicals known to science. http://ejnet.org/dioxin
10 National Academy of Sciences. (2003). Exposure and human health reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris_drafts/dioxin/nas-review/; See Pt 1, Vol 2, Chap 4, Table 4-30 on p. 4-110
11 Energy Justice Network. (2019). Operating trash incinerators. SpatialJusticeTest.org. http://spatialjusticetest.org/test/1127.html; Note that a race ratio greater than one means that a demographic group is more impacted than others at the distance
indicated. If all incinerators were distributed fairly by race, all lines would follow a ratio of one. Data on each facility available via http://energyjustice.net/map/jtiny=4758
12 Energy Justice Network. (2019). Trash incineration is the most expensive way to manage waste. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/expensive-waste
13 Energy Justice Network. (2014). Trash incineration is the most expensive way to make energy. http://energyjustice.net/incineration/expensive-energy
14 Energy Justice Network. (2011). We predicted the nation’s largest city bankruptcy — 8 years ago. http://energyjustice.net/harrisburg-bankruptcy-predicted
15 Rutland Daily Herald. (1993, September 17). 200 tpd mass-burn incinerator, owned and operated by Wheelabrator. Incinerator contract forces 29 towns to file for Chapter 9 bankruptcy. http://americanhealthstudies.org/wastenot/wn244.htm
16 Ciplet, D. (2009, November). An industry blowing smoke: 10 reasons why gasification, pyrolysis and plasma arc are not green solutions. Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives. http://no-burn.org/wp-content/uploads/BlowingSmokeReport-1.pdf
17 Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives. (2020). Chemical recycling. http://no-burn.org/chemical-recycling-resources/
1 WISE Uranium Project. (2015, January 27). Nuclear fuel material balance calculator. http://wise-uranium.org/nfcm.html;
Calculated on March 14, 2021 using default calculator settings, with the following alterations to reflect the US industry and
uranium supply: Ore Grade = 1.51%; Enrichment Product Assay = 4.3%
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2021). Uranium mines. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://abandonedmines.
3 Schneider, M., Froggat, A., et al. (2020, September). World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2020 (p. 54). Paris. https://
4 Gale, A. (2021, March 11). Fukushima nuclear cleanup is just beginning a decade after disaster: Decommissioning
target of 2051 in doubt because of difficulties removing molten reactor fuel. Wall Street Journal. https://wsj.com/articles/
5 Muramatsu, S., & Kazunari, H. (2018, March 11). Seven years on, no end in sight for Fukushima’s long recovery: Japan
faces myriad challenges to decommissioning and decontamination. Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Sevenyears-on-no-end-in-sight-for-Fukushima-s-long-recovery
6 Kobayashi, T. (2019, March 7). Accident cleanup costs rising to 35-80 trillion yen in 40 years: Considering
the postponing of decommissioning with ‘Confinement managing’ scenario as a possible option. Urgent need for
measures to manage contaminated water. Japan Center for Economic Research. https://jcer.or.jp/jcer_download_log.
7 Southwest Rese.arch and Information Center. (2009). Church Rock spill: 30 years later. Voices from the Earth (p. 6).
Retrieved on March 14, 2021. http://sric.org/voices/2009/v10n3/index.php
8 Schneider, M., Froggat A., et al. (2020, September). World nuclear industry status report 2020 (p. 51). Paris, London.
9 Schneider, M. Froggat, A., et al. (2017, September). World nuclear industry status report 2017 (p. 103). Paris. https://
10 Schneider, M. Froggat, A., et al. (2015, July). World nuclear industry status report 2015 (p. 55). Paris. https://
11 Hsu, J. (2021, March 9). Nuclear power looks to regain its footing 10 years after Fukushima. Scientific American. https://
12 Judson, T. (2018, November). Nuclear power and climate action: An assessment for the future. Rosa Luxemburg StiftungNYC. New York. https://rosalux.nyc/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/RLS-NYC_Nuclear_Power_Climate_Action.pdf
13 Nuclear Information and Resource Service. (2021, March). Irradiated nuclear fuel: Scale of danger to drinking water.
14 Besnard, M., et al. (2019, November). The world nuclear waste report – Focus Europe. Heinrich Boell Stiftung. Berlin.
16 Judson, T. (2018, November). Nuclear power and climate action: An assessment for the future. Rosa Luxemburg StiftungNYC. https://rosalux.nyc/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/RLS-NYC_Nuclear_Power_Climate_Action.pdf
17 Besnard, M., et al. (2019, November). The world nuclear waste report – Focus Europe. Heinrich Boell Stiftung. Berlin.
18 WISE Uranium Project. (2015, January 27). Nuclear fuel material balance calculator. http://wise-uranium.org/nfcm.html;
Calculated on March 14, 2021 using default calculator settings, with the following alterations to reflect the US industry and
uranium supply: Ore Grade = 1.51%; Enrichment Product Assay = 4.3%
1 Katwala, A. (2018, August 5). The spiraling environmental cost of our lithium battery addiction. Wired. https://wired.
2 Nogrady, B. (2020, May 14). Cobalt is critical to the renewable energy transition. How can we minimize its social and
environmental cost? Ensia. https://ensia.com/features/cobalt-sustainability-batteries/
3 Prashad, V., & Bejarano, A. (2020, August 1). ‘We will coup whoever we want’: Elon Musk and the overthrow of democracy
in Bolivia. InDepthNews. https://indepthnews.net/index.php/opinion/3735-we-will-coup-whoever-we-want-elon-muskand-the-overthrow-of-democracy-in-bolivia
4 Gilbertson, T., & Reyes, O. (2009). Carbon trading: How it works and why it fails. Critical Currents, 7. Dag Hammarskjöld
Foundation. Accessed 15 March 2021: https://daghammarskjold.se/publication/carbon-trading-works-fails/
1 Anderson, D., Moggridge, H., Warren, P., & Shucksmith, J. (2015). The impacts of ‘run‐of‐river’ hydropower on the physical
and ecological condition of rivers. Water and Environment Journal, 29(2), 268-276. https://doi.org/10.1111/wej.12101
2 Grand Canyon Trust. (2020). Three pumped storage hydroelectric projects threaten Indigenous sacred areas, biodiversity,
the Little Colorado River and the Grand Canyon in Arizona, USA. https://grandcanyontrust.org/little-colorado-river-damproposals
3 World Commission on Dams. (2000). Dams and development: A new framework for decision-making: The report of
the world commission on dams. Earthscan.
4 Richter, B. D., Postel, S., Revenga, C., Scudder, T., Lehner, B., Churchill, A., & Chow, M. (2010). Lost in development’s
shadow: The downstream human consequences of dams. Water alternatives, 3(2), 14.
5 World Fish Migration Foundation. (2020). Living planet index for migratory fresh water fish 2020. https://
6 Deemer, B. R., Harrison, J. A., Li, S., Beaulieu, J. J., DelSontro, T., Barros, N., Bezerra-Neto, J.F., Powers, S.M., dos Santos,
M.A., Vonk, J. A. (2016). Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesis. BioScience, 66(11),
7 Ocko, I. B., & Hamburg, S. P. (2019). Climate impacts of hydropower: enormous differences among facilities and over
time. Environmental Science & Technology, 53(23), 14070-14082. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05083
8 Waterkeeper Alliance. (2017). Hydropower is NOT clean energy: Dams and reservoirs are major drivers of climate change.
9 Kandarr, J., & Wittman, F. (2019). Reservoirs release large quantities of methane. Earth System Knowledge Platform, 6.
10 Lima, I. B., Ramos, F. M., Bambace, L. A., & Rosa, R. R. (2008). Methane emissions from large dams as renewable energy
resources: a developing nation perspective. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 13(2), 193-206. https://
11 Galy, V., Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., & Eglinton, T. (2015). Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled
by erosion. Nature, 521(7551), 204-207. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14400
12 Cumming, V. (n.d.). The rivers that help balance our climate. BBC Earth. https://bbcearth.com/blog/?article=the-riversthat-hold-the-climate-in-their-balance
13 Calder, R. S., Schartup, A. T., Li, M., Valberg, A. P., Balcom, P. H., & Sunderland, E. M. (2016). Future impacts of
hydroelectric power development on methylmercury exposures of Canadian indigenous communities. Environmental
Science & Technology, 50(23), 13115-13122. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04447
15 Zarfl, C., Lumsdon, A. E., Berlekamp, J., Tydecks, L., & Tockner, K. (2015). A global boom in hydropower dam construction.
Aquatic Sciences, 77(1), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-014-0377-0
16 IEA. (2018). World energy outlook 2018. https://iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2018
17 Colonna, M. (2020, October 26). No more new hydropower in Europe: A manifesto. Birdlife International. https://birdlife.
18 Ansar, A., Flyvbjerg, B., Budzier, A., & Lunn, D. (2014). Should we build more large dams? The actual costs of hydropower
megaproject development. Energy policy, 69, 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.069
19 CDM Pipeline. (2021). http://cdmpipeline.org/cdm-projects-type.htm#3
20 Caminha, M. (2019). We want to hear from you! But first: Three things you should know about CBI’s Hydro Criteria. The
Climate Bonds Initiative. https://climatebonds.net/2019/06/we-want-hear-you-first-three-things-you-should-know-aboutcbi%E2%80%99s-hydro-criteria
21 United Nations University, Institute for Water, Environment and Health. (2021). Aging water storage infra65 endnotes 66 endnotes
structure: An emerging global risk. https://inweh.unu.edu/ageing-water-storage-infrastructure-an-emerging-global-risk/
22 Lowrie, M. (2021). Quebec river granted legal rights as part of global ‘personhood’ movement. CBC News. https://cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/magpie-river-quebec-canada-personhood-1.5931067; See also, as stated in the Te Awa Tupua
(Whanganui River Claims Settlement) Act: https://legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2017/0007/latest/whole.html
1 Geoengineering Monitor (2019, February 14). Arctic geoengineering experiment is dangerous, lacks community consent: Inupiaq organizer. https://geoengineeringmonitor.org/2019/02/arctic-geoengineering-experiment-is-dangerous-lackscommunity-consent-inupiaq-organizer/
2 Terram Foundation and the Millennium Institute of Oceanography (2020). Marine geoengineering: A great risk for Chile. https://terram.cl/descargar/documentos_en_alianza/Marine-Geoengineering-A-great-risk-for-Chile.pdf
1 Roberts, D. (2019, December 6). Could squeezing more oil out of the ground help fight climate change? Vox. https://vox.com/energy-and-environment/2019/10/2/20838646/climate-change-carbon-capture-enhanced-oil-recovery-eor
2 Kuznetz, N. (2020, September 27). Exxon touts carbon capture as a climate fix, but uses it to maximize profit and keep the oil flowing. Inside Climate News. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/27092020/exxon-carbon-capture/
3 Climate Justice Alliance (2020). Geoengineering 101: Carbon capture and storage. https://climatejusticealliance.org/
4 Kaufman, L. (2021, January 4). Will covid stimulus be the breakthrough carbon capture has been waiting for? Bloomberg.
5 Natural Resources Defense Council (2017). Strengthening the regulation of enhanced oil recovery to align it with the
objectives of geologic carbon dioxide sequestration. https://nrdc.org/sites/default/files/regulation-eor-carbon-dioxide-sequestration-report.pdf
REAL SOLUTIONS FOR CLIMATE JUSTICE
1 Delegates to the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit. (1991). The principles of environmental justice (EJ). http://ejnet.org/ej/principles.pdf
2 Members of the Just Transition Alliance. (1997). Just Transition principles. Retrieved March 11, 2021, from http://
3 Delegates to the Jemez Summit in New Mexico (1996, December). Jemez principles for democractic organizing.
4 Members of the Climate Justice Alliance (2016). Ten principles for energy democracy. Climate Justice Alliance.
5 Pinto-Bazurco, J.F. (2020, October 23). Still only one Earth: Lessons from 50 years of UN sustainable development
policy brief #4 – The precautionary principle. International Institute for Sustainable Development. https://iisd.org/articles/
6 Zero Project. (2014, June 11). Nothing about us without us. Retrieved March 13, 2021, from https://zeroproject.org/
7 Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development. (n.d.). Feminist Participitory Action Research (FPAR). Retrieved March 13, 2021, from https://apwld.org/feminist-participatory-action-research-fpar/
8 Barefoot College International. (n.d.) Where we work. Retrieved March 13, 2021, from https://barefootcollege.org/
9 Robbins, J. (2018, April 26). Native knowledge: What ecologists are learning from Indigenous people. Yale Environment 360. https://e360.yale.edu/features/native-knowledge-what-ecologists-are-learning-from-indigenous-people
10 Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa. (n.d.) Campaigning for food sovereignty for climate action. Retrieved March
13, 2021, from https://afsafrica.org/campaigning-for-agroecology-for-climate-action/
11 Working Group on Indigenous Food Sovereignty. (n.d.). Indigenous Food Sovereignty. Indigenous Foods Systems
Network. Retrieved January, 2021 from https://indigenousfoodsystems.org/food-sovereignty
12 Mingren, W. (2018, January 25). The man who stopped a desert using ancient farming. Ancient Origins. https://ancient-origins.net/history-ancient-traditions/man-who-stopped-desert-using-ancient-farming-009493?fbclid=IwAR0OjDBoz4q-MJLhKBC5oQBe9oP3HDPAEBFabme_AMtmpl5ipfCp74Ghx9I
13 Simmons, M. (2020, October 15). Skeena sockeye returns jump 50 per cent in three years thanks to Indigenous leadership. The Narwal. https://thenarwhal.ca/bc-skeena-sockeye-returns-2020?fbclid=IwAR1y5V9i9KezwdOE_RTIDwLMJ49HQbYcM2BjpvyNWtPYLuey0YUauwuxIxE
14 Sherman, D. (2020, June 28). Regenerating the land and Native communities with bison. Provender Alliance. https://provender.org/regenerating-land-and-native-communities-with-bison/
15 McCarthy, M.I., Ramsey, B., Phillips, J., Redsteer, M.H. (2018). Second state of the carbon cycle report, Chapter 7: Tribal lands. U.S. Global Change Research Program. https://carbon2018.globalchange.gov/chapter/7/
16 Renick, H. (2020, March 16). Fire, forests, and our lands: An Indigenous ecological perspective. Non-Profit Quarterly. https://nonprofitquarterly.org/fire-forests-and-our-lands-an-indigenous-ecological-perspective/
17 Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives. (n.d.) How does it work? Retrieved February 13, 2021, from https://zerowasteworld.org/how-does-it-work/
18 Citizen consumer and civic Action Group. (2020, July). Zero waste manual, a toolkit to establish city and community zero waste systems. https://no-burn.org/zero-waste-city-manual/
19 Wang, S., & Ge., M. (2019, October 16). Everything you need to know about the fasted-growing source of global emissions: Transport. World Resources Institute. https://wri.org/blog/2019/10/everything-you-need-know-about-fastestgrowing-source-global-emissions-transport
20 TEDCity2.0. (2013, October 14). The walkable city [Video]. TED Talks. https://ted.com/talks/jeff_speck_the_walkable_city
21 Field, S. (n.d.). Vauban case study: Europe’s vibrant new low car(bon) communities. https://d1trxack2ykyus.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/10/Vauban..pdf
22 Mann, E. (2020). L.A.’s “Defund the police” battle: Strategy center’s role. LA Progressive. https://laprogressive.com/the-strategy-center/
23 About Face (formerly Iraq Veterans Against the War). (n.d.). About face: Veterans against the war. https://aboutfaceveterans.org/
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